Reformation /Martin Luther- the 'reforming' of the church organisation is what historians call the reformation. The people in the Middle Ages thought that honest people would go to heaven while sinners and dishonest people would go to hell. Tithe was a tax the church received from the people. The evidence of the Catholic Churches power would probably be the fact that many wealthy people left their money, land and property with them and the fact that they used to control 1/3 of the land in Europe. Clergy ( archbishops and , monks and friars.

Discoveries- incorrect teaching translations were wrong some opinions were being tested
Criticisms of Church priests were often lazy and illiterate monks and nuns forgetting vows of poverty, obedience and chastity
Criticizms from other groups if they didn't practice religions from church they would be cut off from god began to look for answers without referring to bible discoveries proved church teaching were wrong.
Martin Luther (1483- 1568) He brought religious change by nailing his opinions to church doors. He made 95 statements He became famous as his views were widely discussed (OOOO COOOOOS fine) Pope issued something that was telling him to stop or he would be excommunicated yet he refused to withdraw his thoughts. He was accused of being a heretic He was the person who began it all.

Tudors- Summary Wars of the Roses Wars between Lancaster (red rose) & York (white rose) families for English throne Lancaster won ( Tudors Henry VII married Elizabeth of York Who was the first Tudor king?
- Henry VII Henry VIII & his wives

Henry VII - M-Elizabeth of York


Arthur Henry VIII Margret Mary

Henry VIII &- Catherine of Aragon- Spanish princess first husband was Arthur (Henry VIII's brother) Alliance between England & Spain ( most powerful country in Europe) Daughter - Mary Married 24 yrs ( divorced because Catherine did not give him a son and could not anymore Broke away from Catholic Church- created Church of England (Protestant) Anne Boleyn- Catherine's lady in waiting Henry had to divorce Catherine to marry her because she wouldn't be one of Henry's ladies because she didn't want to end up like her sister. Anne very ambitious, determined Both in love at beginning of marriage Elizabeth I - daughter, not able to have living sons Beheaded for treason (incest) Jane Seymour- Anne's lady in waiting very shy, quiet, very submissive (allowed Henry to be boss) Edward VI (Henry's only living son) Died after birth of son Henry most fond of Jane - extremely sad at her death Only wife to e buried next to him

Anne of Cleves- German princess Henry claimed she looked like a hare divorced Catherine Howard- Anne Boleyn's cousin Beheaded Catherine Parr- very young when she married Henry Henry died during their marriage Make sure you make notes on: Thomas Cromwell, Cardinal Wolsey

Thomas Cromwell
He was the lawyer who assisted Henry VIII, in passing the Act of
Supremacy (helping king become head of church instead of pope)

Cardinal Wolsey
He was the English churchman who organised Henry's first divorce.

6. Make sure you make notes on the 'dissolution of monsteries' It was the process of stripping all the churches and monasteries of their Catholic statues, wall hangings and other valuables. They also took over their lands.

7. List the order in which Herny VIII's children ruled England/how each came to power/ whether they were Protestant or Catholic

Edward VI (1547- 1553) Edward came to power after his father died because he was the male and heir to the thrown. He wanted to follow on in his fathers foot steps, he was a Protestant. Edward died of Tuberculosis.

Mary (1552- 1558) She was the eldest of his remaining two children and so she was the heir therefore given the thrown. She was referred to as 'Bloody Mary' as she burnt many protestants at the thrown, when they refused to return to the catholic faith. She was a Catholic Mary died of long-term illness and the fact that no one loved her, she was alone in the world. Elizabeth I (1533- 1603) She was the only left descendent so she was entitled the throne, after Mary's countless attempts to kill her, or at least stopping her from becoming Queen. (e.g. locking her up in the tower of London) She was a Protestant She was the best Queen they have ever seen, and ruled for many years.

Define the following terms and write a few sentences on their significance in relation to the Tudor period: Church of England The Church of England was established by Henry VIII for Protestants and it held a great significance to England as a Protestant Church. Catholic Church The Catholic Church was the church, which Henry broke away from so he could divorce Catherine or Aragon. It was not very significant, as most people were Protestant. Protestant People who have broken away from the Catholic religion and were forming a group of Protestant people. Bloody Mary Was a name for Mary after she had burnt so many people as a punishment for not wanting to return to the old faith. Spain A country, which held so much power at that time, and was what every country wanted to befriend in order to have their help in war, therefore gaining a political alliance.

Elizabeth (1533-1603) Was 25 when she became queen Queen for 45 yrs She was 3 when her mum died She was locked up in the Tower of London Physically strong, energetic, short tempered, cruel, attractive, insincerity, love of artifice and easily jealous Her early years of life were spent removed form royal court Could read Greek classics, Latin, French, Spanish and accomplished in music Promised that even though she may look like a weak woman she is a KING at heart. Got the throne through being the only left person to gain it.
Elizabethan court Her court attracted many young men who wanted to be given important positions. Her court also attracted young women who wanted to catch the eye of a courtier. Earl of Leicester was thought to be her favourite courtier, yet even though she knew she loved him she couldn't marry him or she may have lost trust from other people in her court. But she thought that she should get married or the throne would go to Mary Stuart, Queen of Scots and everything would change as she was Catholic.
Other info Was crowned 1559 She never married because she didn't want to have a man have power over her like Henry VIII had over his mother and other wives.
Elizabethan Accomplishments She defeated the Spanish Armada Settled religious questions Shakespeare wrote many of his famous plays during her rule The globe erected First theatre 1576 English merchants great trade in wool and cloth
The Elizabethan Renaissance - Voyages of Exploration Christopher Columbus went exploring for glory, wealth and fame. He first went to sea when he was 14 He believed that a quick way to china was through the Atlantic Ocean Spanish helped him with his explorations because they wanted to explore and discover more lands to catch up with the wealth of the Portuguese His ships were; Santa Maria, Pint and Nina Some superstitions were that there were boiling seas, sea monsters, men with corrupt faces When the Indigenous people met him they thought he was descended from heaven; skin colour, so they brought food for them and gave them what they wanted. A second fleet was sent out to colonise so that they could make the place where they had found gold theirs When columbus returned, he mad the Indians slaves; mined for didn't think it mattered and he just wanted to make money and didn't care how Spanish colonists he had brought were dying of starvation and disease It was hard to make another fleet after 2nd one as people thought he was mad and the other people only died when they went with him 4th and final voyage in 1502
Reasons for Exploration: What stopped Europeans from exploring in the early Middle Age? they believed the earth was flat and they would fall off the edge they believed that they would turn black the closer they sailed to the equator they believed there were dragons and sea monsters in the distant oceans they believed there were strange people with bodies of humans and the heads of animals (imagination) What allowed Europeans to explore the further away from home towards the end of the Middle Ages? The development of inventions such as the compass and astrolabe allowed sailors to sail out of sight of land They were better maps making techniques Improvement s in ship building like the Portuguese caravel made sailing faster and much safer During the beginning of the Renaissance therew was a "spirit of enquiry" where people were keen to find out more about t he world Why did Europeans seek to conquer new lands? They wanted to trade in new and exotic tnems like spices, silks, gold etc and become wealthy They wanted to add more land to their empires so that they would have power and influence with other nations They wanted to convert the '"heathens" in other lands to Christianity because they thought they were barbarians and uncivilized

The Aztecs The Aztec's didn't try to win over the conquered peoples because the peoples were usually terrified into obeying them. 'Tribute' is to be paid by conquered tribes, which they used to trade etc They wondered for over 150 yrs till a sign from god (eagle with snake in mouth landed on cactus) told them where to settle. The main features of Teochtitlan included being built with incredible technology in that age, it had canals, causeways and it was built on rivers. How the city was built showed how advanced they wre The city helped in allowing the people to get around Tribes that lived near the Aztec's included Mixtec's, the Toltecs, the Olnecs, the Zaptolecs and the Maya The main gods included, Tialoc (god of rain), Blue Hummingbird Snake woman (who was a man) and king were ahead of Aztecs Snake woman- controlled the city's laws, taxes, foods and buildings King responsible foreign affairs and war They sacrificed so that the sun would rise again the next day Steps for sacrifice: 1. the people to be sacrificed were placed in
single file. Priest comes with idol (god) and tell victims it is their god walked naked up the place of sacrifice victims walked up to place to be sacrificed to meet 6 sacrificers four held victims hands and feet, another held the throat and the last used the knife to cut victim thrown against pyramidal stone a necklace was thrown around their throat the sovereign priest with the knife opened the chest and pulled out the heart the heart was thrown in the face of the idol the victims body was disposed of down the temple steps the corpses were then shared amongst those who had captured them and eaten god of war and water were the most important gods to the Aztecs They were said to be powerful because of the building of Pleasure gardens where hundreds of thousands of men were required to build Their merchants work included travelling throughout the empire with loads of manufactured goods to barter; only interested in gaining wealth.

Contacts with Spanish Cortez wanted to convert the barbaric Aztecs into the Christian faith and wanted money, glory and fame When the Aztec's first saw the Spaniards approaching they thought that they were gods with their horses and guns Montezuma sent gifts to the Spaniards and told them to leave but Cortes refused and marched towards they gracious city He was joined by other Aztec enemies, who looked at him as the destroyer of cruel Aztec Montezuma let Cortes in because he thought that he might be their long awaited god, Quetzalcoatl. Cortes soon held Montezuma hostage for there were not enough Spaniards to control the large population The Aztecs soon revolted and bitter fighting broke out and the Spniards tried to sneak out of the city Aztecs soon found then and many Spaniards died Cortes was saved though coz their Indian accomplices fought and stopped the Aztecs Later on Cortes returned with a larger army of both Indians and Spaniards The Aztec army also known as 'Jaguar,' was being beaten by sickness (small pox, influenza.) and starvation as Spaniards were cutting off the Aztecs food and water supply Cuauhtémoc the last emperor surrendered the city and coretes sent soldiers to take over the rest of the Aztec Empire Afterwards some Indians resisted but most accepted the Spanish rule without a fight The main reasons why The Aztecs didn't have a great chance against the Spanish was the fact that their weapons were made of wood, while Spanish had guns, horses, armour and cannons After the Spanish had taken over the Indians were poor but accepted their way of life If ur reading this and ur not me and ur doing the Aztecs (i.e. nay) read the last page of the booklet coz I dunno if that's needed or ! :D)

Spanish rule When the fighting ended Spanish had the trouble of trying to work out how to govern the large number of people. SO that the Indians didn't revolt, Charles I of Spanish allowed them to speak their own languages and to be governed by their own officials The Indians had to help the Spanish when they needed it and would have to pay 'tribute' Indians had to covert to Roman Catholicism Tenochtitlan and other Indian cities became Spanish cities and were under Spanish rule People~ peninsulares (people born in Spain)
~ creoles (Europeans born in new world)
~ Mextizos (people of mixed white and Indian ancestry) The creoles and mestizos considered themselves superior to the Indians. 1540's, Spaniards discovered silver mines, which brought much wealth to the creoles and peninsulares creoles established estates called haciendas (there they produced food and clothing for the new mining communities) Creoles used power of thee royal government to make the Indians work for them Indians lived on the haciendas when they had work but rest of the time lived in own villages.
Indians under Spanish rule Indians poor but accepted way of life During 300 yrs Indians lifestyles changed King agreed Indians could have their land back Indians found ways to blend Roman Catholic faith with their won culture. Indians considered the king of Spain as their defender Creoles were content at first at being ruled by Spanish King because he was far away Spanish officials worked on behalf of king Officials couldn't force Creoles if they objected 1700's Charles III tired to gain more power by changing government He raised taxes Few creoles sought independence but may wanted more control of their affairs

This is a mel production!.. kind